From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Volkswagen Golf is a small family car manufactured by Volkswagen since 1974 and marketed worldwide across six generations, in various body configurations and under various nameplates – as the Volkswagen Rabbit in the United States and Canada (Mk1 and Mk5), and as the Volkswagen Caribe in Mexico (Mk1).
Karmann (for convertibles)
|Also called||Volkswagen Rabbit|
|Class||Small family car|
|Platform||Volkswagen Group A platform series|
|Related||Volkswagen Jetta, Volkswagen Scirocco|
The front-wheel drive Golf was Volkswagen's first successful replacement for the air-cooled Volkswagen Beetle. Historically, it is Volkswagen's best-selling model and the world's third best-selling model, with more than 25 million built by 2007.
Most production of the Golf was initially in the 3-door hatchback style. Other variants include a 5-door hatchback, estate/wagon (Variant, from 1993), convertible (Cabriolet and Cabrio, 1979–2002), and a Golf-derived notchback saloon/sedan, variously called Volkswagen Jetta, Volkswagen Vento or Volkswagen Bora (from 1979). The cars have filled many market segments, from basic personal cars, to high-performance hot hatches.
The Golf name is derived from the German word for Gulf Stream – and the period in its history when VW named vehicles after prominent winds, including also the Passat (after the German word for Trade wind), Jetta (after the Jet stream), Bora (after Bora) and Scirocco (after Sirocco). "Golf" is also a sport, a theme that is shared with the Volkswagen Polo.
Every generation of Golf has been a runner-up in the European Car of the Year awards, but only one has been a winner, the Golf Mk3 in 1992.
Golf Mk1/Rabbit (A1/Typ 17, 1974–1983)
In May 1974, Volkswagen presented the first-generation Golf as a modern front-wheel-drive, long-range replacement for the Volkswagen Beetle. Later Golf variations included the Golf GTI "hot hatch" (introduced in June, 1976), a Diesel-powered version (from September, 1976), the Jetta notchback saloon version (from October, 1979), the Golf Cabriolet (from January, 1980) and a Golf-based pickup, the Volkswagen Caddy. All variants proved instantly popular with the only notable technical flaw being the poor braking in RHD models, due to the master cylinder for the brakes being placed on the left for LHD cars, as Volkswagen never intended the Golf to be sold abroad.
|Successor||Volkswagen Golf Mk2|
|Engine||1.1L, 1.3L, 1.5L, 1.6L, 1.8L 1.5L Diesel, 1.6L Diesel, 8v|
|Related||Volkswagen Jetta Mk1|
Volkswagen Scirocco Mk1/Mk2
The Golf Mk1 was sold as the Volkswagen Rabbit in the United States and Canada and as the Volkswagen Caribe in Mexico.
A facelifted version of the Golf Mk1 was produced in South Africa as the Citi Golf from 1984 to 2009.
Golf Mk2 (A2/Typ 19E, 1983–1992)
September 1983 saw the introduction of the second-generation Mk2 that slightly grew in terms of wheelbase, exterior and interior dimensions while retaining, in a more rounded form, the Mk1's overall look. In 1985, the first Golfs with four-wheel-drive (Golf Country) went on sale with the same Syncro four-wheel drive system being employed on the supercharged G60 models, exclusively released on the continent in 1989 with 160 bhp (120 kW) and ABS braking.
|Predecessor||Volkswagen Golf Mk1|
|Successor||Volkswagen Golf Mk3|
|Engine||1.3L, 1.6L, 1.8L, 1.8l 16v, 1.6L Diesel, 1.6L Turbo Diesel, 1.8L G60|
|Related||Volkswagen Jetta Mk2|
SEAT Toledo Mk1
A Mk2-based second generation Jetta was unveiled in January 1984. There was no Mk2-based Cabriolet model; instead, the Mk1 Cabriolet was continued over the Mk2's entire production run.
Golf Mk3 (A3/Typ 1H, 1991–1999)
The third-generation Golf Mk3 made its home-market début in August 1991 and again grew slightly in comparison with its immediate predecessor, while its wheelbase remained unchanged.
|Predecessor||Volkswagen Golf Mk2|
|Successor||Volkswagen Golf Mk4|
New engines included the first Turbocharged Direct Injection (TDI) diesel engine in a Golf, and a narrow-angle 2.8 L VR6 engine. The VR6-engined version accelerated from 0–60 mph (0–97 km/h) in 7.1 seconds, posting a record 15.5¼-mile time at 90.5 mph (145.6 km/h). EPA estimate 26 mpg (city) or 32 mpg (highway), with 261 mi (420 km) per tank (city) and 363 mi (584 km) per tank (highway). For the first time ever, a Golf estate (Golf Variant) joined the line-up in September 1993 (although most markets did not receive this model until early 1994), at the same time a completely new Mk3-derived Cabriolet was introduced, replacing the 13-year-old Mk1-based version. With a body style similar to that of the Golf, it was continued on until 2001 with only minor changes in the 1999 model year. The notchback version, called VW Vento (or Jetta III in North America), was presented in January, 1992.
It was European Car of the Year for 1992, ahead of PSA's new ZX model and GM's new Astra model.
The Mk3 continued to be sold until 1999 in Canada and parts of South America, also in Mexico as a special edition called "Mi" (Golf CL 4-door, added A/C, special interiors, OEM black tinted rear stop lights, and ABS, no OEM radio) ("Mi" ("i" in red) stands for Multipoint Injection and the 1.8 L engine was upgraded to 2.0).
Golf Mk4 (A4/Typ 1J, 1997–2004)
The Golf Mk4 was first introduced in August 1997, followed by a notchback version (VW Bora or, in North America, again VW Jetta) in August 1998 and a new Golf Variant (estate) in March 1999. There was no Mk4-derived Cabriolet, although the Mk3 Cabriolet received a facelift in late 1999 that comprised bumpers, grill and headlights similar to those of the Mark 4 models. New high-performance models included the 3.2 L VR6 engined four-wheel-drive Golf R32 introduced in 2004, a 2.8 L four-wheel drive Golf VR6 4Motion version available succeeding the Mk3 VR6 which only had front-wheel drive, as well as the famous 1.8T (turbo) 4-cylinder used in various Volkswagen Group models.
|Predecessor||Volkswagen Golf Mk3|
|Successor||Volkswagen Golf Mk5|
|Related||Audi A3 Mk1|
Audi TT Mk1
SEAT León Mk1
SEAT Toledo Mk2
Škoda Octavia Mk1
As of 2008, certain variants of the Golf/Bora Mk4 were still in production in Brazil, China, and Mexico. Revised versions of the Mk4 are currently on sale in Canada marketed as the City Golf and City Jetta and Golf City and Jetta City in 2009. The two models are VW Canada's entry-level offerings. They received a significant freshening for the 2008 model year, including revised headlamps, taillamps, front and rear fascias, sound systems, and wheels. Both models are offered only with the 2.0 L, 8-valve SOHC four-cylinder gasoline engine, rated at 115 bhp (86 kW). They are the only entry-level offerings with an optional six-speed automatic. The production of Golf Mk4 for the U.S. market ended in 2006. But for the European markets, the production of the fourth generation ended in 2003.
Some owners and enthusiasts of the Mk4 have facelifted the front end of the vehicle with that of a Bora or a Jetta giving the vehicle the nickname "Bolf", "Jolf" or Rolf, although this has never been a modification that VW made or sold. However, when the Chinese market Bora received a July 2006 facelift, the Golf did too, becoming the "Bora HS" in the process.
Because of the MK4's popularity and low cost, it is still in production in several countries, such as Brazil and Argentina.
Golf Mk5 (A5/Typ 1K, 2003–2009)
The Volkswagen Golf Mk4 was succeeded by the Golf Mk5 in 2003 in Europe. This model did not reach the North American markets until model year 2006, where it was marketed as the Rabbit. The North American base model is powered by a 2.5 L five-cylinder engine. A GTI version is powered by a turbocharged version of the 2.0 FSI engine, producing 200 PS (147 kW; 197 hp).
|Predecessor||Volkswagen Golf Mk4|
|Successor||Volkswagen Golf Mk6|
|Related||Audi A3 Mk2|
SEAT León Mk2
SEAT Toledo Mk3
Škoda Octavia Mk2
Volkswagen also introduced the "Fast" marketing ploy for the North American market, dedicated to the "fast" that lives inside every driver. Drivers who purchase new GTI Mk5s from a dealership are shipped a model of said Fast, which employs GTI-like features, and appears as a small robot thing in the commercials. The GTI version is the only version on sale in Mexico.
The saloon/sedan version, again called Volkswagen Jetta in most markets and assembled in Germany, South Africa, as well as Mexico (In Mexico this car is named Bora, in Europe it is now again named Jetta, as well), followed in 2004, a new Golf Variant in 2006. The Jetta however, is not the only variant, as the notchback version of the GTI can also be had in the GLI version. The front ends of the car are the same, with the only difference being that the GLI is a sedan, while the GTI is a hatchback.
Later models of the Mk5 introduced the 1.4 TSI turbocharged petrol engine with front wheel drive.
In a comparison test conducted by Car and Driver Magazine, the Volkswagen Rabbit S was named the winner among eight small cars. While it was praised for its excellent driving position, fine instruments, and strong engine, it was criticized for having high levels of road noise, uncomfortable seats, and poor fuel economy. Though, the final verdict stated, "This one is all about driving pleasure, so it wins." The Rabbit also placed first in their final comparison in December 2006.
The Volkswagen Golf Plus model was also introduced in 2004. This was a slightly larger version of the Golf Mk5 with a higher roofline.
Golf Mk6 (A6/Typ 5K, 2009–present)
Volkswagen based the latest Golf Mk6 on the existing PQ35 platform from the Golf Mk5. This vehicle was debuted at the 2008 Paris Motor Show.
Karmann (for convertibles)
|Related||Audi A3 Mk2|
SEAT León Mk2
SEAT Toledo Mk3
The Mk6 Golf was designed by Volkswagen's chief designer Walter de'Silva. The design is said to be more aerodynamic, helping fuel efficiency, and is quieter than its predecessor. Following criticism of the downgraded interior trim quality of the Mk5 Golf in comparison to the Mk4, Volkswagen opted to overhaul the interior to match the quality with the Mk4 Golf, while maintaining the same user friendliness from the Mk5. The car is also cheaper to build than its predecessor; Volkswagen claims it consequently will be able to pass these savings on to the customer.
Turbocharged Direct Injection diesel engines which use the common rail direct injection will replace the longstanding Pumpe/Düse (PD) Unit Injector system. New on the Golf, is the optional Volkswagen Adaptive Chassis Control, which will allow the driver to select between 'normal', 'comfort' and 'sports' modes, which will vary the suspension, steering and accelerator behavior accordingly.
The Mk6 Golf is available with both 5 and 6-speed manual transmission gearbox and 6 or 7-speed DSG (Dual Clutch).
The car was introduced for sale in the UK in January 2009.
The car was introduced in North America in October 2009 as the 2010 Golf, rather than Rabbit. The Mk6 Golf also reintroduces the North American market to an available diesel engine in the Golf.
Electric versionsThe VW Golf has had several generations made into electric CityStromer models. The first of these was in the 1970s, when VW took a standard Golf Mk1 and converted it to electric power. By the time the Golf Mk2 came into production a limited number of electric Golfs were made, using lead-acid battery packs and a custom-made motor and controller. VW continued with the production of limited numbers of CityStromer electric cars with the introduction of the Golf Mk3. The electric CityStromer Mk3 included a Siemens based AC drive system, and lead-acid battery packs. They had a maximum speed of 60 mph (97 km/h) and a range of approximately 50 mi (80 km). With a few exceptions, only left-hand drive Golfs were converted by VW into Citystromer models. These vehicles are still used today and have popularity in mainland Europe with only a few present in England. Only two right-hand drive Mk2 CityStromers were built for the UK market and it is believed only one remains today. It is owned by EV advocate and broadcaster Nikki Gordon-Bloomfield, host of Transport Evolved. The CityStromer EV on PositiveTV
Golf Variant Twin DriveAs part of the "Fleet study in electric mobility" project that began in 2008, VW developed 20 Golf Variant twinDRIVE plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. These research vehicles have an all-electric range of 57 km (35 mi) and the internal combustion engine provides for a total range of 900 km (560 mi). The plug-in hybrid drive of the Golf Variant twinDRIVE is equipped with either an 11.2 kWh or a 13.2 kWh lithium-ion battery pack, as Volkswagen is testing packs from two vendors. Ten vehicles are equipped with batteries from the American-German manufacturer GAIA with cathode type nickel cobalt aluminium dioxide (NCA). The other ten are powered by lithium-ion batteries with nickel manganese cobalt (NMC) cathodes from the Korean-German joint venture SB LiMotive (Samsung and Bosch). These 10 vehicles have been in use since early 2011. Both battery systems offer high power and energy density. They each weigh about 150 kg. The gasoline engine is used to support the electric heating system when outdoor temperatures are low.
Using guidelines for determining the fuel consumption of plug-in hybrids, VW estimates a fuel consumption of 2.1 L/100 km (112 mpg US), which is equivalent to 49 g/km CO2. When the battery is fully charged, the Golf Variant twinDRIVE is design to maximize the share of pure electrical energy used for driving, and only when longer distances are driven does the share of supplemental gasoline fuel increase. Top speed of the car is 170 kilometres per hour (110 mph) and it accelerates to 100 km/h in under 12 seconds. When operated in pure electric mode, the Golf Variant twinDRIVE can reach a top speed of 120 kilometres per hour (75 mph).
The production version is expected to be based on Mk6 Golf featuring a 1.5 L turbodiesel engine and electric motor, with estimated arrival date of 2015.
Golf blue-e-motionAt the ceremonial launching of Germany's "National Electric Mobility Platform" (NEMP) in Berlin, Volkswagen presented the Golf blue-e-motion electric car concept to German Chancellor Angela Merkel. NEMP is a German government initiative to develop Germany into a leading market for electric mobility.
The Golf blue-e-motion has a range of 150 km (93 mi). Sales are scheduled for 2014, and Volkswagen scheduled field testing with 500 units for 2011. The first 10 units began field testing in Wolfsburg in May 2011. A second batch of 80 test cars began testing in June 2011 in Berlin, Hannover and Wolfsburg.
The Golf blue-emotion has a 26.5KWh lithium-ion battery pack and is powered by an 85KW electric motor which drives the front wheels through a single speed transmission. It will accelerate to 62 miles per hour (100 km/h) in 11.8 seconds and have a top speed of 86 miles per hour (138 km/h). Paddle shifters are used to adjust the amount of regenerative braking. The vehicle's PRNDL stick has an additional 'B' mode as found on some other electric vehicles to set the regenerative braking effort to the maximum for sustained downhill travelling.
Other Twin Drive vehicles
|This section requires expansion.|
Upon the release of the Mk1 Golf in the mid 1970s in Australia, interest from prospective buyers was much higher than anticipated and most had to be placed on a waiting list. Some Golfs were shipped whole, while others were shipped in separate parts, which were then assembled in Australia at the VW Clayton plant in Melbourne. Buyers who requested certain colours such as red, had to wait longer until their colour was shipped. Some of these buyers chose to take a different colour temporarily until their requested colour became available, some waiting for their colour for up to 12 months.
MotorsportIn auto racing, APR Motorsport has led two MKV VW GTI's to victory in the Grand-Am KONI Sports Car Challenge Street Tuner (ST) class.
References : Wikipedia
|economy car||. . . Beetle (Type 1) . . .|
|supermini||Polo Mk1 . . .|
|Derby Mk1 . . .|
|small family car||Type 3||Golf Mk1 . . .|
|K70 (NSU)||Passat Mk1 . . .|
|coupé||Karmann Ghia||Scirocco I . . .|
|Type 34 Karmann Ghia||VW-Porsche 914|
|utility vehicle||Type 181 Kurierwagen/Trekker . . .|
|founder: Deutsche Arbeitsfront • Volkswagen corporate website • A marque of the Volkswagen Group|